Crossing the Bridge over Norman's Gulf of Execution: Revealing Feedforward's True Identity

Jo Vermeulen, Kris Luyten, Elise van den Hoven and Karin Coninx
Presented by
Jo Vermeulen

In Proceedings of CHI 2013: The ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Paris, France, April 27 - May 2, 2013, pp. 1931-1940.
[~20% acceptance; 1963 submissions]

Best Paper Honorable Mention Award (top 5%)


Feedback and affordances are two of the most well-known principles in interaction design. Unfortunately, the related and equally important notion of feedforward has not been given as much consideration. Nevertheless, feedforward is a powerful design principle for bridging Normanís Gulf of Execution. We reframe feedforward by disambiguating it from related design principles such as feedback and perceived affordances, and identify new classes of feedforward. In addition, we present a reference framework that provides a means for designers to explore and recognize different opportunities for feedforward.